2021. augusztus 8., vasárnap

Impressoras 3D convencionais de mesa

Os tecidos de carbono utilizados como agentes reforçadores de resinas feniólicas, levaram às pesquisas para o desenvolvimento de fibras cujas propriedades mecânicas foram sendo aperfeiçoadas até chegar-se ao “raion”.

Impressão 3D com reforços contínuos de fibra de carbono usando impressoras 3D convencionais de mesa.

Ao se desenvolver estas matérias primas iniciando-se na década de 1950 até o final da década de 1960, chegou-se à produção de fibras carbônicas de alta resistência à tração e tensão mecânicas.

Um exemplo destes produtos é a fibra de poliacrilonitrila conhecida pela sigla “PAN”. Esta é semelhante ao acrílico. Os poliimidos, poliamidos e o álcool polivinílico são considerados fibras precursoras poliméricas sintéticas.

Para se produzir uma fibra carbônica de boa qualidade à partir de uma fibra precursora, é necessário um processo de tratamento térmico e condições controladas de tensão, atmosfera, tempo e principalmente temperatura.

O processo se inicia com um pré tratamento onde a matéria prima recebe tensões mecânicas que provocam o seu alongamento utilizando vapor. Em seguida vem a etapa de onde ocorre a conversão de um precursor polimérico. Seguindo-se ao aquecimento constante e controlado até em torno de 250°C aproximadamente. Em seguida é necessária a sua estabilização físico-química. Isto ocorre através do surgimento de ligações transversais entre as cadeias moleculares.

Após a estabilização físico-química vem o processo de carbonização em atmosfera inerte em alta temperatura, o gás mais utilizado neste ponto do processo é o “Argônio” e a temperatura utilizada é em torno de 1.000°C.

No momento em que ocorre a pirólise começam a surgir sub-produtos devida decomposição gasosa. A contração do material passa a ocorrer aumentando assim sua rigidez mecânica.

Em alguns tipos de fibras de carbono são liberados Nitrogênio, Dióxido de Carbono, Vapor d’água, Cianureto de Hidrogênio, e Amônia.

2015. november 16., hétfő

Hősök tere

Hősök tere (meaning "Heroes' Square" in Hungarian) is one of the major squares of Budapest, Hungary, rich with historic and political connotations. It lies at the end of Andrássy Avenue (with which it comprises part of an extensive World Heritage site), next to City Park.

Hősök tere is surrounded by two important buildings, Museum of Fine Arts on the left and Palace of Art (or more accurately Hall of Art) on the right. On the other side it faces Andrassy Avenue which has two buildings looking at the square — one is residential and the other one is the embassy of Serbia (former Yugoslavian embassy where Imre Nagy secured sanctuary in 1956).

The central site of the hero's square, as well as a landmark of Budapest, is the Millennium Memorial (also known as Millennium Monument or Millenary Monument) with statues of the leaders of the seven tribes that founded Hungary in the 9th century and other outstanding figures of Hungarian history (see below). The construction of the memorial was started when the one thousandth anniversary was celebrated (in 1896), but it was finished only in 1929 and the square got its name then.

When the monument was originally constructed, Hungary was a part of the Austrian Empire and thus the last five spaces for statues on the left of the colonnade were reserved for members of the ruling Habsburg dynasty. From left to right these were: Ferdinand I (relief: Defense of the Castle at Eger); Leopold I (relief: Eugene of Savoy defeats the Turks at Zenta), Charles III, Maria Theresa (relief: The Hungarian Diet votes support "vitam et sanguinem") and Franz Joseph (relief: Franz Joseph crowned by Gyula Andrássy) The monument was damaged in World War II and when it was rebuilt the Habsburgs were replaced by the current figures.

On the 16th June 1989 a crowd of 250,000 gathered at the square for the historic reburial of Imre Nagy, who had been executed in June 1958.

It is also a station of the yellow M1 (Millennium Underground) line of the Budapest Metro.

There are also three other squares in Budapest entitled Hősök tere, in Soroksár, Békásmegyer and Rákosliget.

At the front of the monument is a large stone cenotaph surrounded by an ornamental iron chain. The cenotaph is dedicated "To the memory of the heroes who gave their lives for the freedom of our people and our national independence." While some guide books refer to this as a "tomb" it is not a burial place.

Directly behind the cenotaph is a column topped by a statue of the archangel Gabriel. In his right hand the angel holds the Holy Crown of St. Stephen (Istvan), the first king of Hungary. In his left hand the angel holds a two barred apostolic cross, a symbol awarded to St. Stephen by the Pope in recognition of his efforts to convert Hungary to Christianity. In Hungarian it is referred to as the double cross or the apostolic double cross.

At the base of the column is a group of seven mounted figures representing the Magyar chieftains who led the Hungarian people into the Carpathian basin. In the front is Árpád, considered the founder of the Hungarian nation. Behind him are the chieftains Előd, Ond, Kond, Tas, Huba, and Töhötöm (Tétény). Little survives in the historical record about these individuals and both their costumes and their horses are considered to be more fanciful than historically accurate.

The back of the monument consists of two matched colonnades, each with seven statues representing great figures of Hungarian history. Topping the outer edge of the left colonnade is a statue of a man with a scythe and a woman sowing seed representing Labor and Wealth. In the corresponding position on the right colonnade is a statue of a man holding a statue and a woman with a palm frond representing Knowledge and Glory. At the inner top edge of the left colonnade is a male figure driving a chariot using a snake as a whip representing war, while on the facing end of the right colonnade is a female figure in a chariot holding a palm frond representing peace.

Not far from the heroes square there are a plenty of good homes in Budapest. Maybe you can find a tourist guide too, and try out the new continuous carbon fiber reinforcement.

2015. augusztus 8., szombat

Geography of Hungary

Hungary's landscape consists mostly of the flat to rolling plains of the Carpathian Basin, with hills and lower mountains to the north along the Slovakian border (highest point: the Kékes at 3,327 ft; 1,014 m). Hungary is divided in two by its main waterway, the Danube (Duna); other large rivers include the Tisza and Dráva, while the western half contains Lake Balaton, a major body of water. The largest thermal lake in the world, Lake Hévíz (Hévíz Spa), is located in Hungary. The second largest lake in the Carpathian Basin (and probably the largest artificial lake in Europe) is Lake Theiss (Tisza-tó).


Hungary has a continental climate, with cold, cloudy, humid winters and warm to hot summers. Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Temperature extremes are about 38 °C (100 °F) in the summer and −29 °C (−20 °F) in the winter. Average temperature in the summer is 27 to 32 °C (81 to 90 °F), and in the winter it is 0 to −15 °C (32 to 5 °F). The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 millimetres (24 in). A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a Mediterranean climate.

The relative isolation of the Carpathian Basin makes it susceptible to droughts and the effects of global warming are already felt. According to popular opinion, and many scientists in the latest decades the country became drier, as droughts are quite common; and summers became hotter, winters became milder. Because of these reasons snow has become much more rare in the area than before. Popular opinion also states that the four-season system became a two-season system as spring and autumn are getting shorter and shorter, even vanishing some years.

Most of Hungary is covered by agricultural plains, there are but few remnants of its original forests.

2013. március 15., péntek

Hungarian culture

Hungary's culture comprises a diverse set of variants along the Hungarian territory, where a lot of Budapest journey are, with diverse and varied from the capital Budapest, on the Danube, to the great plain which extends to the border with Ukraine. Until 1918 Hungary accounted for half of the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is a country with a rich tradition spanning folk crafts such as embroidery, carvings or painted pottery and buildings or musical events. Hungarian music ranges from romantic rhapsodies of Liszt to the music of the Hungarian gypsies or Roma music.
It is also historically rich Hungarian literature, with many poets and writers who, despite exceptions like Sandor Marai or Imre Kertész, applauded in recent times, are not particularly well known outside the country. This lack of Hungarian literature has been linked to the limitations imposed by the Hungarian Finno-Ugric language family. The writer Imre Kertesz won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2002. Meanwhile Péter Esterházy is well known in Austria and Germany and Magda Szabó is achieving some fame in Western Europe. Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe, the Great Synagogue in Budapest, and the largest spa in Europe. Travelling to Hungary can be very exciting, Hungary is also the third largest church in Europe, the Basilica of Esztergom, and also find the second largest abbey grounds in the world, Abbey Pannonhalma. In Pécs is the largest necropolis of early Christianity outside Italy. The own music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional folk music and classical composers such as Liszt product, Franz Schmidt, Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály, or Rózsa.
The traditional Hungarian music is characterized by a strong dactylic rhythm as in the stressed syllable Hungarian invariably corresponds with the first syllable of each word. Hungary also has a number of contemporary or modern composers of classical music such as György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös or Zoltán Jeney and when we come to Hungary with tourguide, we can listen to  classical hungarian musics.

2013. január 24., csütörtök

University of Economics

Facin the Danube, this Neo- Renaissance edifice was designed by Miklos Ybl (see p94) and built as the Main Customs Office in 1871–4. The facade is 170 m (560 ft) long and features a colonnade supporting a balcony. On the balustrade stand ten allegorical figures by August Sommer. In 1951, this building opened as a university specializing in economics and management. There is a statue of Karl Marx, after whom the university was once named, in the atrium. windows, while the interior features cast-iron Neo-Gothic motifs. The Great Debating Hall Budapest tours is decorated with mosaics designed by Karoly Lotz. Many antiquarian bookshops and galleries have now opened around here. Fashionable bars, restaurants and cafes, and the recent pedestrianization, make this a very charming area from the men’s section by a partition, and the division is further emphasized by the floor, which has been lowered by 30 cm (1 ft). The choir gallery is enclosed by an iconostasis that divides it from the sanctuary. This iconostasis dates from around 1850. The carving is by the Serb sculptor Miahai Janich and the Italian Renaissance-influenced paintings are the work of the Greek artist Karoly Sterio.

2012. szeptember 6., csütörtök

Getting around Budapest

Getting around by Metro

Budapest has three metro lines (see inside back cover), which intersect only at Deák tér station. Here passengers can change trains (stamping their tickets once again), by following the clearly marked passageways. The oldest line, the yellow M1 line, runs just beneath the surface of the city. Built in 1894, it is known as the Millennium Line after the celebrations that took place two years later (see p142). Recently it has been modernized and extended. Two more lines – the red M2 and blue M3 lines – have been added since 1970, serving the rest of the city. Transfers from Budapest by metro is not available.

Getting around by bus

Budapest has about 200 different bus routes, which altogether cover most of the city. The blue Ikarus buses generally run from 4:30am until 11pm, with departures on most routes every 10–20 minutes. Times and a list of destinations are on display at most stops. Ordinary buses are indicated by black numbers and stop at every stop. Buses with red numbers follow express routes and omit a number of stops.

2012. július 13., péntek


Bratislava (see below for name alternatives), is the capital of Slovakia and the country's largest city, with a population of some 450,000. Bratislava is the political, cultural and economic centre of Slovakia. It is the seat of the Slovak presidency, parliament and government as well as home to several universities, museums, theatres, galleries and other national economic, cultural and educational institutions. Most of Slovakia's large businesses and financial institutions have their headquarters in Budapest-Bratislava transfer. The city's past has been characterized by the strong influence of various peoples, including Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians, and Jews. Bratislava still retains its cosmopolitan spirit. It hosts many festivals and trade shows and it is famous for its nightlife and leisure facilities. Vienna is not so far from Bratislava and you should make a Budapest-Vienna transfer too. It worths a trip.